Category: Nutrition

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Starvation induced metabolic alterations

A 23 –year- old female was brought for consultation by her mother who was troubled by her daughter’s continuous fatigue, dizziness and loss of weight. The patient was 6 feet 2 inches tall and weighed 100 pounds. Further questioning revealed that the young woman had been virtually fasting for 4 months hoping to obtain a ‘skinny figure’ as a prelude to a career in modeling. Physical examination revealed dehydration and a fruity odor in her breath. Laboratory results revealed – Blood glucose 50 mg%. Which substance would most likely be detected in abnormally high concentration upon patient’s urine test? A)...

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Nonessential in normal health but essential during conditions of enhanced growth or surgical recovery

Case details An 8-year-old child requires surgical intervention and substantial recovery time in the hospital. A nutritionist recommends a specific dietary plan. The plan includes a protein rich diet with the special supplementation of an amino acid that is typically considered a nonessential, but becomes an essential amino acid under conditions of enhanced growth or surgical recovery. Which of the following amino acids should be considered in this dietary plan? A. Alanine B. Arginine C. Glycine D. Serine E. Tyrosine The correct answer is Arginine. Arginine is a semi essential amino acid. It can be synthesized in the human body...

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Role of Phytosterols in reducing the risk of heart disease

A 65-year-old man has been taking low-dose aspirin to reduce his risk of heart disease. He adds phytosterols to his daily regime for which of the following? A. To reduce circulating triglyceride levels B. To reduce circulating cholesterol levels C. To reduce endogenous cholesterol synthesis D. To decrease insulin secretion E. To reduce fatty acid biosynthesis The answer is B: To reduce circulating cholesterol levels. Phytosterols interfere with cholesterol absorption in the intestine (through blockage of cholesterol incorporation into the mixed micelles, which are necessary for intestinal epithelial cells to absorb dietary cholesterol), (figure-1), thereby leading to a reduction in...

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Role of dietary fiber

A 65-year-old man expresses his concern about developing colon cancer to his physician. He states that his father as well as grandmother died of colon cancer. After performing a physical exam and observing unremarkable colonoscopy, the physician recommends a diet low in fat and high in fiber. The physician explains that studies have shown a decreased risk of colon cancer with insoluble fiber consumption. Which of the following bonds is responsible for the fiber’s inability to be digested? A. α (1->4) B. α (1->6) C. β (1->4) D. β (1->6) E. α (1->2) Answer- The correct answer is – C-...

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Low body fat mass and hormone levels ?

An 11-year-old girl is presented at the clinic with reports of frequent fainting and lethargy. The girl is 5 ft tall and weighs 80 lb. Skin fold tests show an abnormally low percentage of body fat mass. Which of the following hormones is likely to be severely diminished in this patient? A. Cortisol B. Epinephrine C. Glucagon D. Insulin E. Thyroid Answer- The correct answer is D. The patient has low body weight and fat mass and there are frequent fainting attacks. Apparently her condition is consistent with a low energy state that might be due to poor diet or...

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Nitrogen balance

A 22 -year-old man started to work out twice a day with the goal of competing in an upcoming bodybuilding competition. Despite his strict working routine, he continues eating a diet of fast food hamburgers and French fries. After a gain of 15 pounds, it is likely he is in a: A. Vitamin overload B. Negative nitrogen balance C. Positive nitrogen balance D. State of decreased BMR E. State of increased BMR Answer- The correct answer is- C-Positive nitrogen balance. The gain in weight despite strict work out signifies positive nitrogen balance. The state of protein nutrition can be determined...

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Case study- Starvation

Case details A 25 –year-old woman living alone became severely depressed after the termination of her engagement. Two months later, she was brought to the emergency room by a friend because of weakness and lethargy. She appeared thin and pale. Questioning revealed that she had not eaten for several weeks. Analysis of a plasma sample indicated elevated levels of acetoacetate, β hydroxybutyrate, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). However her plasma glucose concentration was within normal limits. She was hospitalized, given intravenous feeding and antidepressant medications and subsequently shifted to an 1800 Cal (7500 kJ) diet. Her recovery was uneventful. During...

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Answer- Case study- Chronic Alcoholism- A 75-year-old chronic alcoholic presents to the emergency room…

A 75-year-old chronic alcoholic presents to the emergency room after being found on the rail road tracks passed out. On examination, he is found to have a distended abdomen that is equivalent in size to a full term pregnant woman’s belly. Which of the following functions of the liver has been compromised to cause this finding? A. Lipid metabolism B. Albumin synthesis C. Bilirubin metabolism D. Alcohol detoxification E. Decreased production of coagulation factors Answer- The right answer is B- Albumin synthesis. The patient has alcoholic liver disease. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to fatty liver, hepatitis, and cirrhosis (figure)....

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Case study- Chronic Alcoholism-A 75-year-old chronic alcoholic presents to the emergency room..

QUESTION OF THE DAY A 75-year-old chronic alcoholic presents to the emergency room after being found on the rail road tracks passed out. On examination, he is found to have a distended abdomen that is equivalent in size to a full term pregnant woman’s belly. Which of the following functions of the liver has been compromised to cause this finding? A. Lipid metabolism B. Albumin synthesis C. Bilirubin metabolism D. Alcohol detoxification E. Decreased production of coagulation factors For answer follow the link http://usmle.biochemistryformedics.com/answer-case-study-chronic-alcoholism-a-75-year-old-chronic-alcoholic-presents-to-the-emergency-room/ Please help Biochemistry for Medics by “CLICKING ON THE ADVERTISEMENTS” every time you visit us. Thank...

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